infectious disease

Sexually Transmitted Infections are on the rise. This drug could stop them.

Cases of gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis soared last year, but researchers are finding that a drug known as doxy seems to reduce the number of infections.

Adobe Stock

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are surging across the U.S. to 2.5 million cases in 2021 according to preliminary data from the CDC. A new prevention and treatment strategy now in clinical trials may provide a way to get a handle on them.

It's easy to overlook the soaring rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis because most of those infections have few or no symptoms and can be identified only through testing. But left untreated, they can lead to serious damage to nerves and tissue, resulting in infertility, blindness, and dementia. Infants developing in utero are particularly vulnerable.

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Bob Roehr
Bob Roehr is a biomedical journalist based in Washington, DC. Over the last twenty-five years he has written extensively for The BMJ, Scientific American, PNAS, Proto, and myriad other publications. He is primarily interested in HIV, infectious disease, immunology, and how growing knowledge of the microbiome is changing our understanding of health and disease. He is working on a book about the ways the body can at least partially control HIV and how that has influenced (or not) the search for a treatment and cure.
Video: An overview of the monkeypox virus

Kalpana Pot walks us through the latest information on the monkeypox outbreak.

Leaps.org

Click below for an overview of everything you need to know about the latest status of monkeypox - in 58 seconds.


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Kalpana Pot
Kalpana Pot is the youngest of three girls in a family full of doctors. Science and education were always of great value in her home. But performing arts was another passion for her, which is why she moved to LA to pursue acting after decades of dancing and singing. She’s appeared on numerous TV shows and national commercials, and will soon be co-hosting Wheel of Fortune Live. At the same time, Kalpana got to express her nerd love of astronomy by working weekends at Griffith Observatory. It was there that she found her love and skill in communicating science to people from all over the world, and has since continued to host space/science series. She has translated that onto digital platforms as well- running an outspoken space-page on TikTok, called TokNerdyToMe, and style and science page on Instagram. Unfortunately, much of her science communication these days is about debunking anti-science conspiracies. But she’s confident that the rise of educational content on social media will help this unfortunate problem in society. Outside of work, Kalpana loves her dogs and volunteers for animal organizations.
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New tools could catch disease outbreaks earlier - or predict them

A team at the Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies is utilizing drones and weather stations to collect data on how mosquito breeding patterns are changing in response to climate shifts.

Gabriel Carrasco

Every year, the villages which lie in the so-called ‘Nipah belt’— which stretches along the western border between Bangladesh and India, brace themselves for the latest outbreak. For since 1998, when Nipah virus—a form of hemorrhagic fever most common in Bangladesh—first spilled over into humans, it has been a grim annual visitor to the people of this region.

With a 70 percent fatality rate, no vaccine, and no known treatments, Nipah virus has been dubbed in the Western world as ‘the worst disease no one has ever heard of.’ Currently, outbreaks tend to be relatively contained because it is not very transmissible. The virus circulates throughout Asia in fruit eating bats, and only tends to be passed on to people who consume contaminated date palm sap, a sweet drink which is harvested across Bangladesh.

But as SARS-CoV-2 has shown the world, this can quickly change.

“Nipah virus is among what virologists call ‘the Big 10,’ along with things like Lassa fever and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever,” says Noam Ross, a disease ecologist at New York-based non-profit EcoHealth Alliance. “These are pretty dangerous viruses from a lethality perspective, which don’t currently have the capacity to spread into broader human populations. But that can evolve, and you could very well see a variant emerge that has human-human transmission capability.”

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David Cox
David Cox is a science and health writer based in the UK. He has a PhD in neuroscience from the University of Cambridge and has written for newspapers and broadcasters worldwide including BBC News, New York Times, and The Guardian. You can follow him on Twitter @DrDavidACox.
Ring vaccination strategy can rein in monkeypox virus, scientists say

Monkeypox produces more telltale signs than COVID-19. Scientists think that a “ring” vaccination strategy can be used when these signs appear to help with squelching the current outbreak of this disease.

A new virus has emerged and stoked fears of another pandemic: monkeypox. Since May 2022, it has been detected in 29 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico among international travelers and their close contacts. On a worldwide scale, as of June 30, there have been 5,323 cases in 52 countries.

The good news: An existing vaccine can go a long way toward preventing a catastrophic outbreak. Because monkeypox is a close relative of smallpox, the same vaccine can be used—and it is about 85 percent effective against the virus, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Susan Kreimer
Susan Kreimer is a New York-based freelance journalist who has followed the landscape of health care since the late 1990s, initially as a staff reporter for major daily newspapers. She writes about breakthrough studies, personal health, and the business of clinical practice. Raised in the Chicago area, she holds a B.A. in Journalism/Mass Communication and French from the University of Iowa and an M.S. from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.
A purple gloved hand holds a kissing bug

Kissing bugs can carry a parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease.

Photo by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Daisy Hernández was five years old when one of her favorite aunts was struck with a mysterious illness. Tía Dora had stayed behind in Colombia when Daisy's mother immigrated to Union City, New Jersey. A schoolteacher in her late 20s, she began suffering from fevers and abdominal pain, and her belly grew so big that people thought she was pregnant. Exploratory surgery revealed that her large intestine had swollen to ten times its normal size, and she was fitted with a colostomy bag. Doctors couldn't identify the underlying problem—but whatever it was, they said, it would likely kill her within a year or two.

Tía Dora's sisters in New Jersey—Hernández's mother and two other aunts—weren't about to let that happen. They pooled their savings and flew her to New York City, where a doctor at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center with a penchant for obscure ailments provided a diagnosis: Chagas disease. Transmitted by the bite of triatomine insects, commonly known as kissing bugs, Chagas is endemic in many parts of Latin America. It's caused by the parasite Trypanoma cruzi, which usually settles in the heart, where it feeds on muscle tissue. In some cases, however, it attacks the intestines or esophagus. Tía Dora belonged to that minority.

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Kenneth Miller
Kenneth Miller is a freelance writer based in Los Angeles. He is a contributing editor at Discover, and has reported from four continents for publications including Time, Life, Rolling Stone, Mother Jones, and Aeon. His honors include The ASJA Award for Best Science Writing and the June Roth Memorial Award for Medical Writing. Visit his website at www.kennethmiller.net.
Your Body Has This Astonishing Magical Power

A fierce champion fighter in action, representing the incredible power of the human immune system.

(© elnariz/Fotolia)


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Matt Richtel
Matt Richtel is a best-selling author and Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter for the New York Times based in San Francisco. He joined the staff in 2000, and his work has focused on science, technology, business and narrative-driven story telling around these issues, including cancer immunotherapy, electronic cigarettes, and the impact of heavy technology use on behavior and the brain. In 2010 he won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, for his series of articles on the hazardous use of cell phones, computers and other devices while driving. His non-fiction thriller A Deadly Wandering explored these issues, was a New York Times bestseller. He is also the author of four acclaimed science and tech-centric thrillers, including, most recently, The Doomsday Equation.